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In LP4 you identified a habit you wish you did not have. You also wrote about how you acquired the habit and any possible attempts to stop the habit. You then explored how to extinguish this habit using the principles of operant conditioning.Reread your essay from that assignment. In this assignment you will assess the acquisition and maintenance of your habit using the following four psychological perspectives:• Humanistic• Psychodynamic• Neuroscience• CognitiveYou will be expected to describe why you developed this habit, what purpose having this habit serves in your life, and how you will break this habit – according to each perspective. You will need to use at least 3 concepts from each perspective to support your answer.Here’s an example of an answer for this assignment. Please note that this example is not fully developed; it is intended to provide you with an overall direction for this assignment.ExampleIdentified habit: Nervous laughter in inappropriate timesWhy this habit developed and how is it reinforced: Behavioral (from LP4 Assignment): behavior was positively reinforced with gaining attention from the mother whenever nervous laughter was displayed. Humanistic: esteem needs are not being met, feeling insignificant around other people, attempt to fulfill belonging needs.Psychodynamic: unconscious need for attention, superego’s reaction when uncomfortable with conversation, defense mechanism.Neuroscience: family trait (heritability), mother and sister exhibit same behavior.Cognitive: interpret nervous laughter as exhibiting happy/fun personality traits instead of annoying, interpret the attention gained from nervous laughter as showing acceptance with others.This was my LP4 assignment I did:Operant conditioning can use either positive or negative reinforcement as a means of behavior adjustment the schedule of reinforcement for my daughter’s behavior a school would have to be very regular in order to bring about extinction of the undesirable behavior. If I do not give her money periodically, then the money would begin to act as a punishment rather than reinforcement. That is because the withholding of the money, intentional or otherwise, is the withholding of a positive reinforcer. This possible schedule of punishment could bring about the destruction of good behavior if other primary reinforcers are not in place to pick up the slack. A number of secondary reinforcers cannot tolerate behavior modification (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2005). The chain must eventually be linked to a primary reinforcer. Likewise, if the teacher were to feel shame on my daughter and decided to only tell me about her wrongdoing every other day, then the money would begin to act as reinforcement towards misbehavior. That is because my daughter would then be receiving money even when bad behavior takes place in the classroom. Also, I have noticed that punishment does not work well when trying to get my daughter to behavior appropriately in class, but that negative reinforcement works miracles. For instance, I do believe kids should get spanking as a disciplinary tool, but the introduction of spankings only makes my child terrified of the punishment rather than transferring that fear to the desired behavior. However, once a schedule of punishment is in place the withholding of that punishment greatly increases the future likelihood that my daughter will behave appropriately at school.River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.Positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement are more effective at changing a behavior than punishment or extinction because positive and negative reinforcement work with strengthening the behavior and not trying to weaken it. Some people will respond to positive reinforcement while other people respond better to negative reinforcement. Take criminals in jail, some of the men do not want to go back to jail and will be on their best behavior in order to get some time shaved off of his sentencing. Time off for good behavior is a way to show positive reinforcement. Opposite of that are the men in jail who do not care about the law and still get into fights and trouble. These men respond by the negative reinforcement of going into segregation, being separated from people and having to spend upwards of twenty-three hours a day in a cell is a way to show bad behavior is not tolerated.One scenario in which operant conditioning would be effective would be a person trying to quit smoking. In order for a person to quit smoking completely he or she would need to be positively rewarded every time they wanted to smoke and yet choose to chew a piece of gum instead. On the other hand that same person would need to get punished every time he or she bought a pack of cigarettes and or picked up and lit a cigarette. That way the person would start to associate negativity and smoking and then rewards when choosing to do something else.The reinforcement schedule for a person who is trying to quit smoking would have to be extremely consistent for one or two lapses in the reward or punishment aspect and the behavior change will not be a strong. In order to extinct a behavior the positive and negative effects have to be always present. The person who is trying to quit smoking might start to think one or two cigarettes a day are okay if he or she does not get punished for lighting up every time.Thanks to the work of B.F. Skinner the theory of operant conditioning is known all around the world as a way to change one’s behavior. Through the use of positive and negative reinforcements a problem such as smoking can be controlled and eventually quit altogether.ReferencesB.F. Skinner Foundation (2011), 18 Brattle Street, Suite 451, Cambridge, MA 02138McLaughlin, S. (2010). Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner: contributions to analyzing early language learning. Journal of Speech-Language Pathology & Applied Behavior Analysis, 5(2), 114-131. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.Olson, M. H. &Hergenhahn, B. R. (2009). An introduction to theories of learning (8th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.Here is the grading scale: Scoring Guide (75 Points)Rating Scale15-13Work meets or exceeds criterion at a high level of competence.12-11Work reflects an understanding of criterion with minor misunderstandings/misconceptions.11-10Criterion partially met, but one or more important concepts/skills are missing or flawed.9-8Work reflects an attempt to meet criterion, but significant misunderstandings/misconceptions are apparent.7 – 0Criterion not met or work is absent.Criteria1.Student has identified how his/her cultural background has affected goals and ambitions. Answer is well-organized and well-developed; key points are supported.2.Student has identified how his/her cultural background has affected values. Answer is well-organized and well-developed; key points are supported.3.Student has identified how his/her cultural background has affected self-identity. Answer is well-organized and well-developed; key points are supported.4.Student has identified how his/her cultural background has affected relationships with others. Answer is well-organized and well-developed; key points are supported.5.Student has explored a different personality having been raised in another culture. Answer is well-organized and well-developed; key points are supported.


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