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Literature Review 1A: Introduction to Problem 1. Use the Capstone Template and write the Lit Review in the correct format template attached in the Introduction Module and again here. (CapstoneTemplate.doc). PLEASE use the template!!! 2. Select a problem you are interested in studying that has applications relevant to evidence-based nursing practice (Family Presence During Resuscitation, or FPDR). Start with a general or broad statement or question, then become more specific. Include at least two statistics about the nursing problem or issue and cite the sources in APA format (Author, Year). 3. In a new paragraph, describe briefly a new approach to the problem, possible solution, or a bundle of interventions that is being used or proposed. Define terms if necessary. Cite at least one source for the intervention you want to research. 4. Start a new paragraph and clearly state the purpose of your paper. 5. Avoid using personal pronouns (I, me, my) in a professional paper like this. 6. Start reference list alphabetically in APA format. All citations in text should be in reference list and all items in reference list should be cited somewhere in the paper (including secondary sources). All citations in text should be in (Author, Year) format, per APA manual. Do NOT put the full article title or journal name in the paragraphs. 7. APA format for this paper: Use the provided template. You may change name of headings to fit your paper, but keep the format of headings (centered, left flush, and indented subheadings). Start typing each paragraph indented 5 spaces. Every line is double spaced, including block quotes and reference list. Do NOT add extra spaces before headings or between paragraphs. Use this template or make sure word processing software so that line spacing is 2 lines and edit the page layout so that 0 spaces are placed before and after paragraphs (Word default adds spacing). Keep at least one inch margins. 8. PICOT, Search Strategy, and Articles (major heading left flush) In the paper, state the PICOT Question which you will be using to guide your literature search, in this format (including the initials and parentheses (P) (I) (C) (O) (T) after each segment): In ___________ (P), how does ____________ (I) compared to __________(C) affect ___________ (O) within ______________ (T)? 9. Select two best articles, download the PDF files, and attach the files of both articles to this assignment (do not insert the files into your paper). In the paper: describe your search strategy. Include which databases you searched, what key words were used, and what limiters were added. State the approximate number of articles that came up on the first search and how you adjusted it down to find the most relevant and highest level of evidence available for your topic. Cite the two articles you selected in (Author, Year) format and add them to the reference list if not there already. Do NOT list the title of articles or journals. Do NOT describe them in this section because you will be critiquing them in detail in following sections (after instructor approves the articles). Include in your paper the paragraph and bulleted list of levels of evidence (LOE) scale you will be using to critique the studies (located below and in the template). Copy and paste it from this document or the template. Be sure you include the source at the end of the block quote. Lit Review 1B: Critique of Article (Use article: Family Support During Resuscitation: A Quality Improvement Initiative) Select the nursing research article with the highest level of evidence and critique it by answering questions in the appropriate “Rapid Critical Appraisal Checklists” in Appendix B of Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt (2019, pp. 708-722). If needed, consult with instructor about the correct LOE and checklist before you write your critique. In the paper, write a concise summary of the most pertinent details about the article, organizing it with subheadings of Validity, Results, Applicability, Strengths, and Weaknesses. Include the type of study, purpose, methods and instruments, sample size and characteristics, results with statistical significance (if provided), key findings relevant to your PICOT, and your critique of its applicability, strengths, and weaknesses. Make sure article is in reference list. Cite sources in the paper using APA style with authors’ last names and year (in the first sentence and when needed). Do not type the complete title of article or journal in your paragraph because it is in the reference list. RAPID CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST: VALIDITY 1.Are the results of the review valid? a.Are the studies contained in the review randomized controlled trials (RCTs)? b.If not, were all relevant studies included in the review? c.Does the review include a detailed description of the search strategy to find all relevant studies? d.Does the review describe how validity of the individual studies was assessed (e.g., methodological quality, including the use of random assignment to study groups and complete follow-up of the participants)? e.Were the results consistent across studies? f.Were individual patient data or aggregate data used in the analysis? g.Does the review include a description of how studies were compared using statistical analysis? RELIABILITY 2.What were the results? a.How large is the intervention or treatment effect (OR, RR, effect size)? b.How precise is the intervention or treatment (CI)? APPLICABILITY 3.Will the results assist me in caring for my patients? a.Are my patients similar to the ones included in the review? b.Is it feasible to implement the findings in my practice setting? c.Do the pooled or combined results of the studies support the hospital’s values and goals of service delivery? (i.e., Is it feasible to implement the findings in my practice setting?) d.Were all clinically important outcomes considered, including risks and benefits of the treatment? e.What is my clinical assessment of the patient and are there any contraindications or circumstances that would inhibit me from implementing the treatment? f.What are my patient’s and his or her family’s preferences and values about the treatment that is under consideration? Would you use the study results in your practice to make a difference in patient outcomes? •If yes, how? •If yes, why? •If no, why not? Additional Comments/Reflections: Recommendation for article use within a body of evidence: Lit Review 1C: Critique of Guidelines (USE ENA GUIDELINES) Select the nursing research article with the highest level of evidence and critique it by answering questions in the appropriate “Rapid Critical Appraisal Checklists” in Appendix B of Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt (2019, pp. 708-722). If needed, consult with instructor about the correct LOE and checklist before you write your critique. In the paper, write a concise summary of the most pertinent details about the article, organizing it with subheadings of Validity, Results, Applicability, Strengths, and Weaknesses. Include the type of study, purpose, methods and instruments, sample size and characteristics, results with statistical significance (if provided), key findings relevant to your PICOT, and your critique of its applicability, strengths, and weaknesses. Make sure article is in reference list. Cite sources in the paper using APA style with authors’ last names and year (in the first sentence and when needed). Do not type the complete title of article or journal in your paragraph because it is in the reference list. RAPID CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST: VALIDITY 1.Are the results of the review valid? a.Are the studies contained in the review randomized controlled trials (RCTs)? b.If not, were all relevant studies included in the review? c.Does the review include a detailed description of the search strategy to find all relevant studies? d.Does the review describe how validity of the individual studies was assessed (e.g., methodological quality, including the use of random assignment to study groups and complete follow-up of the participants)? e.Were the results consistent across studies? f.Were individual patient data or aggregate data used in the analysis? g.Does the review include a description of how studies were compared using statistical analysis? RELIABILITY 2.What were the results? a.How large is the intervention or treatment effect (OR, RR, effect size)? b.How precise is the intervention or treatment (CI)? APPLICABILITY 3.Will the results assist me in caring for my patients? a.Are my patients similar to the ones included in the review? b.Is it feasible to implement the findings in my practice setting? c.Do the pooled or combined results of the studies support the hospital’s values and goals of service delivery? (i.e., Is it feasible to implement the findings in my practice setting?) d.Were all clinically important outcomes considered, including risks and benefits of the treatment? e.What is my clinical assessment of the patient and are there any contraindications or circumstances that would inhibit me from implementing the treatment? f.What are my patient’s and his or her family’s preferences and values about the treatment that is under consideration? Would you use the study results in your practice to make a difference in patient outcomes? •If yes, how? •If yes, why? •If no, why not? Additional Comments/Reflections: Recommendation for article use within a body of evidence: Lit Review 1D: Capstone Part 1 with Conclusions 1. Go back to the beginning of your paper and read it as if this is the first time you read it. You may find it helpful to print it out so you can see the entire paper and compare sections. Does each paragraph have a “theme” and do the thoughts flow from one paragraph to the next without unnecessary duplication? Are the headings consistent with the template and is the right content under each heading and subheading? Look for clarity. Are the results from each article clearly explained under the subheading for Results (or under Recommendations if guidelines used)? 2. Double check that you have included all the items in the directions for each section. 3. Proofread the entire paper to make sure it has good sentence structure with appropriate commas, and all grammatical or spelling errors are corrected. Use the word processing software to help you with grammar and spelling (in Word it is under the tab “Review”). Was APA format followed for numbers less than 10? Did you avoid using personal pronouns (I me my)? It may help you to read it out loud or seek the help of an English tutor. Make sure your references are cited correctly (first and subsequent times). Verify that references are listed correctly in APA format. 4. Now you are ready to add the new and final section. Conclusions from lit review should answer “What are the best practices or nursing interventions on your topic?” Were you able to answer your PICOT question? If yes, explain what you found. If not, explain what you were not able to find and what you did find that related to the topic. This should mostly be in your own words, but cite each source at least once to show where your conclusions came from. Did you find similar or different results from each source? If results are consistent, then you can cite more than one source after that conclusion. For example: Nurse-led protocols are more effective in reducing….. (Jones, 2015; Smith, 2014). Paraphrase here; don’t copy/paste! 5. You will find it helpful to go back to your paper and underline or highlight the key findings from each article (that you wrote under the subheadings for Results and Guideline Recommendations). 6. Create a bulleted list of your conclusions of the best evidence for nursing practice from all the articles you reviewed, including guideline recommendations. Try to start the bulleted items in a consistent format (such as with a verb like assess, monitor, educate….). Remember: Research doesn’t prove anything; it only provides evidence to support or reject a hypotheses (so don’t use the word prove)

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